"The Brothers Karamazov" & 新訳「カラマーゾフの兄弟」・・・

The Brothers Karamazov (Everyman\\\'s Library (Cloth))The Brothers Karamazov (Everyman\\\'s Library (Cloth))
(1992/03)
Fyodor DostoyevskyRichard Pevear

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 本日記事のこと、、、

 名著『カラマゾフの兄弟』談義の最終回は、翻訳談義でして、、、。

 ほんの、その、さわりだけを書き留めておきたく思って、読み進めれば読み進めるだけ文学的試行錯誤が深遠になり、さらなる深みに嵌まっていき、止めるに止められなくなって早くも一週間が経過しました。 全5巻新訳カラマゾフの兄弟は、昨日現在にて1巻(430p)読破して更に2巻目に突入。昨日まで2巻(501p)の160pまで読み進めました。 2巻に突入してますます面白くなり、さりとて読めば読むほど頭脳の引出しに溜め込まれる『重い想い』を思いながら、ようやくブログ記事に書き下ろすことにしたのであります。

 なるほど、、、。
 最初に想像していたほどには、あまり難しくない。 翻訳者亀山郁夫氏は、
「今から20年先でも使われているであろう日本語の今流儀で翻訳した…」
と、おっしゃっている。
 読み進めれば、まさにその通りです。 難しい日本語ではなく、むしろあまりにも見易く読みやすく書かれているから拍子抜けするくらいだ。 そこで英文と見比べると、またこの英文(Constance Garnett氏訳)が難しくない。 あれこれ思い巡らしつつ、尚、気が付けば、元々この小説はドストエフスキーがロシア語で著作したものであって、英文も日本文もいずれも翻訳モノなのであります。

 まだ読破していないから読書感想文は書けないのでありますが、気が付いたことを、以下に書き留めておきます。

 a) 亀山郁夫さんの翻訳日本語の調子が、あまりにも「若者向け」過ぎて、読み進めていて落ち着かない。
 b) しかし、亀山教授はご親切にも、各巻の終わりに「訳者からのアドバイス」として、翻訳途中における翻訳の問題点をご自身で指摘されており、それぞれの指摘部分に整然と「その理由」を述べられているから理路整然とし、納得して翻訳文を読み進めていける。
 c) 光文社発刊の5冊を読み終えたら、是非一度、英文翻訳文も通読したくなった。
 d) 本来ならば、相当な量の参考文献を同時に読み進めていかなければ「この手」の文献(もやは、ドストエフスキー著「カラマーゾフの兄弟」は、短なる長編小説の枠を通り越していて、私にとっては思想乃至哲学の書籍である)を読み解けないのでありますが、にもかかわらず、各巻の終わりに『読書ガイド』なるもの備えられ、例えば第1巻に出てきたテーマ「ロシア正教会と一般のキリスト教宗派について」であるとか、「ロシア人の人名とその呼称に関わる問題」だとか、亀山郁夫教授自ら、はっきりとした説明文を御自らの文章で書きしるされているからすばらしい。

 いずれにしても、すばらしい日本語翻訳文章に出会えました。 尚一層、しっかりと読み進めていきます。

 最初にお話したとおり、もっと早く、読んでおかなくてはならなかった名著「カラマーゾフの兄弟」を、ようやくこの年齢になって読み始めたのでありますから、たいへんお恥ずかしい。 しかし、人間それぞれ持ち場がある。 それぞれ与えられた(であろう)人生の使命(天命か)あって、それなりにこの歳まで生きてきたのでありまして、ロシア文学を読んでいないからといって、なんら恥ずべきではないでしょう。

 しかし、今の私にとって、「これを読まなければ次のステップに進めない!」と、痛感している今日この頃です。

 でもってこの時期、このようなカタチで、ドストエフスキー作「カラマーゾフの兄弟」と出会えるなんて、私はなんと「しあわせ者」でありましょうか、、、。

     <…完…>

                                     <投稿・トーマス青木>

*人気ブログランキング参加中!人気blogランキングへ


(以下、引用文です……)
   ------------------------------------------

 1879 
 THE BROTHERS KARAMAZOV
 by Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky
 translated by Constance Garnett


 PART I

 Book I
 The History of a Family

 Chapter 1
 Fyodor Pavlovitch Karamazov

  ALEXEY Fyodorovitch Karamazov was the third son of Fyodor Pavlovitch Karamazov, a landowner well known in our district in his own day, and still remembered among us owing to his gloomy and tragic death, which happened thirteen years ago, and which I shall describe in its proper place. For the present I will only say that this "landowner"- for so we used to call him, although he hardly spent a day of his life on his own estate- was a strange type, yet one pretty frequently to be met with, a type abject and vicious and at the same time senseless. But he was one of those senseless persons who are very well capable of looking after their worldly affairs, and, apparently, after nothing else Fyodor Pavlovitch, for instance, began with next to nothing; his estate was of the smallest; he ran to dine at other men's tables, and fastened on them as a toady, yet at his death it appeared that he had a hundred thousand roubles in hard cash. At the same time, he was all his life one of the most senseless, fantastical fellows in the whole district. I repeat, it was not stupidity- the majority of these fantastical fellows are shrewd and intelligent enough- but just senselessness, and a peculiar national form of it.
  He was married twice, and had three sons, the eldest, Dmitri, by his first wife, and two, Ivan and Alexey, by his second. Fyodor Pavlovitch's first wife,
Adelaida Ivanovna, belonged to a fairly rich and distinguished noble family, also landowners in our district, the Miusovs. How it came to pass that an heiress, who was also a beauty, and moreover one of those vigorous intelligent girls, so common in this generation, but sometimes also to be found in the last, could have married such a worthless, puny weakling, as we all called him, I won't attempt to explain. I knew a young lady of the last "romantic" generation who after some years of an enigmatic passion for a gentleman, whom she might quite easily have married at any moment, invented insuperable obstacles to their union, and ended by throwing herself one stormy night into a rather deep and rapid river from a high bank, almost a precipice, and so perished, entirely to satisfy her own caprice, and to be like Shakespeare's Ophelia. Indeed, if this precipice, a chosen and favourite spot of hers, had been less picturesque, if there had been a prosaic flat bank in its place, most likely the suicide would never have taken place. This is a fact, and probably there have been not a few similar instances in the last two or three generations. Adelaida Ivanovna Miusov's action was similarly, no doubt, an echo of other people's ideas, and was due to the irritation caused by lack of mental freedom. She wanted, perhaps, to show her feminine independence, to override class distinctions and the despotism of her family. And a pliable imagination persuaded her, we must suppose, for a brief moment, that Fyodor Pavlovitch, in spite of his parasitic position, was one of the bold and ironical spirits of that progressive epoch, though he was, in fact, an ill-natured buffoon and nothing more. What gave the marriage piquancy was that it was preceded by an elopement, and this greatly captivated Adelaida Ivanovna's fancy. Fyodor Pavlovitch's position at the time made him specially eager for any such enterprise, for he was passionately anxious to make a career in one way or another. To attach himself to a good family and obtain a dowry was an alluring prospect. As for mutual love it did not exist apparently, either in the bride or in him, in spite of Adelaida Ivanovna's beauty. This was, perhaps, a unique case of the kind in the life of Fyodor Pavlovitch, who was always of a voluptuous temper, and ready to run after any petticoat on the slightest encouragement. She seems to have been the only woman who made no particular appeal to his senses.
  Immediatley after the elopement Adelaida Ivanovna discerned in a flash that she had no feeling for her husband but contempt. The marriage accordingly showed itself in its true colours with extraordinary rapidity. Although the family accepted the event pretty quickly and apportioned the runaway bride her dowry, the husband and wife began to lead a most disorderly life, and there were everlasting scenes between them. It was said that the young wife showed incomparably more generosity and dignity than Fyodor Pavlovitch, who, as is now known, got hold of all her money up to twenty five thousand roubles as soon as she received it, so that those thousands were lost to her forever. The little village and the rather fine town house which formed part of her dowry he did his utmost for a long time to transfer to his name, by means of some deed of conveyance. He would probably have succeeded, merely from her moral fatigue and desire to get rid of him, and from the contempt and loathing he aroused by his persistent and shameless importunity. But, fortunately, Adelaida Ivanovna's family intervened and circumvented his greediness. It is known for a fact that frequent fights took place between the husband and wife, but rumour had it that Fyodor Pavlovitch did not beat his wife but was beaten by her, for she was a hot-tempered, bold, dark-browed, impatient woman, possessed of remarkable physical strength. Finally, she left the house and ran away from Fyodor Pavlovitch with a destitute divinity student, leaving Mitya, a child of three years old, in her husband's hands. Immediately Fyodor Pavlovitch introduced a regular harem into the house, and abandoned himself to orgies of drunkenness. In the intervals he used to drive all over the province, complaining tearfully to each and all of Adelaida Ivanovna's having left him, going into details too disgraceful for a husband to mention in regard to his own married life. What seemed to gratify him and flatter his self-love most was to play the ridiculous part of the injured husband, and to parade his woes with embellishments.
   "One would think that you'd got a promotion, Fyodor Pavlovitch, you seem so pleased in spite of your sorrow," scoffers said to him. Many even added that he was glad of a new comic part in which to play the buffoon, and that it was simply to make it funnier that he pretended to be unaware of his ludicrous position. But, who knows, it may have been simplicity. At last he succeeded in getting on the track of his runaway wife. The poor woman turned out to be in Petersburg, where she had gone with her divinity student, and where she had thrown herself into a life of complete emancipation. Fyodor Pavlovitch at once began bustling about, making preparations to go to Petersburg, with what object he could not himself have said. He would perhaps have really gone; but having determined to do so he felt at once entitled to fortify himself for the journey by another bout of reckless drinking. And just at that time his wife's family received the news of her death in Petersburg. She had died quite suddenly in a garret, according to one story, of typhus, or as another version had it, of starvation. Fyodor Pavlovitch was drunk when he heard of his wife's death, and the story is that he ran out into the street and began shouting with joy, raising his hands to Heaven: "Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace," but others say he wept without restraint like a little child, so much so that people were sorry for him, in spite of the repulsion he inspired. It is quite possible that both versions were true, that he rejoiced at his release, and at the same time wept for her who released him. As a general rule, people, even the wicked, are much more naive and simple-hearted than we suppose. And we ourselves are, too.
 (cont. to "The Brothers Karamazov"

 みごと、『Constance Garnett 氏、英文翻訳』を切り取っちゃいました! 


 そして、

 さらに、、、


  第一部
  第一篇 ある家族の物語
   1.フョードル・パーヴロヴィッチ・カラマーゾフ

  アレクセイ・カラマーゾフは、この郡の地主フョードル・カラマーゾフの三男として生まれた。父親のフョードルは、今からちょうど十三年前に悲劇的な謎の死をとげ、当時はかなり名の知られた人物だった(いや、今でも人々の噂にのぼることがある)。しかし、そのいきさつについてはいずれきちんとしたところでお話しすることにして、今はとりあえずこの「地主」(彼は生涯、自分の領地にはまったくといってよいほど居つかなかったが、このあたりではそう呼ばれていた)について、こう述べるにとどめよう。
つまり、一風変わった、ただしあちこちで頻繁に出くわすタイプ、ろくでもない女たらしであるばかりか分別がないタイプ、といって財産上のこまごました問題だけは実に手際よく処理する能力に長け、それ以外に能がなさそうな男だと―。事実、フョードルは、ほとんど無一文から成り上がった零細の地主で、よその家の食事にありつき、居候(いそうろう)としてうまく転がり込むことばかり考えてきたような男だった。そのくせ、いざ死んでみれば、現金で実に十万ルーブルの金が手元に残されていたことがわかった。それでも彼は、この郡きっての分別のない非常識人のひとりとして一生をおし通したのである。
念のためにいっておくが、これは愚かさというのとは少し違う。それどころかこういう非常識な手合いは、大半がなかなか頭も切れる抜け目のない連中で、ちなみにこういう分別のなさというのは、なにかしら特別の、ロシア的といってもよい資質なのだ。
彼は二度結婚し、三人の子供をもうけた。長男のドミートリーは最初の妻との間に生まれた子どもで、残りの二人、すなわちイワンとアレクセイは二度目の妻とのあいだに生まれた。
 、、、

 つまり今、読み進めている亀山郁夫訳『カラマゾの兄弟』(光文社出版)の第一巻、本文の最初の出だしを切り取ってみました。

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